In the context of tasawwuf folk poetry (based on Nasimi`s poetry)


Hummatova Khuraman 
ANAS, Institute of Literature named after Nizami, Department of turkish folks literature Dos.Dr.Doctor of Philosophy in phililogy,leading scientific worker
[email protected]
                                              
Abstract
One of factors that increases magic of poetry of undying word master of azerbaijanian literature Imadeddin Nasimi(1369-1417)is his creative referring to folk literature.By this way master elevated poetic potential of azerbaijani turkish to unattainable heights and showed ,that azerbaijanian is a language of poetry as well as a language of "birds".Greatness of his mastery is that he could join with unparalleled cleverness divine idea with aestetic beauties in traditional structures of aruz poetical genres.Poetical strenght of Nasimi's poetry took its source from master's passionate poetical gift in one hand,but in another hand from national culture to which he was belonged.In this meaning,characters in Nasimi's creativity related not only with oriental hurufi views,but also with folk creativity,mystical folk views.Shouldered all ideological weight of stream which had got so monstrous social-geographical scale as hurufism,Nasimi at the same time didn't forget interests of literature,responsibility of it and has made irreplaceable contribution in development of azerbaijanian literature and poetry. 
Key words: Nasimi, ,  folk poetry, tasaffuv, systemof images, hurufism

 Introduction: Imadeddin Nasimi who had a great role in formation OF Azerbaijan philosophical poetry and the spreading of the hurufi movement was born in 1369 in an ancient city of of Azerbaijan, Shamakhi. Original name of the poet is Ali. He was named as Imadeddin (supporter of religion) as he profoundly knew the science of that period. He mainly wrote rhymes under pen name of “Nasimi”. I. Nasimi’s meeting with the founder of hurufism movement, Fazullah Naimi in 1386 was a milestone of the life of the poet. The poet studied the secrets of hurufism and was engageed in propogation of hurufism.  He was torturely  executed in 1417 in the city of Halab. The grave of the poet is visited as  sanctuary.
 His lyrical ghazals take the leading place in Nasimi’s creativity. The conception of perfect person is brought forward in his poetry. According to the followers of hurufism,  human being is a small part of the God, only perfect people would be able to join the God. Return of huan being to the God is the major criterion in the author’s creativity. One of the source, the poet benefited was the folk creativity.
One of the factors increasing the value of  magic of word of outstanding master of  the Azerbaijan literature  Imadedding Nasimi  was benefiting from folk poetry. By this  way, he rose up the poetic capabilities of Azerbaijan  turkish languaget o the highest pick and also shown that the being of the language as language of poetry and “bird language”. His might of mastership  is that he could combine  divine idea with ethic beauty at extraordinay level in the traditional structure of aruz genre of poetry:
 The restless heart fallen again in the ghost of your eyes,
Who knows what my heart intends what it dreams
In this couplet, all fonological flexibility, poetic melody, the mechanisms of rhythmical expression of the Azerbaijan language came together. The couplets said centuries before are indicators stating that Nasimi was a poet of the azerbaijan language, who came off  the heart of the very language and despite he used a formular- aruz rhyme  of  a foreign language which was strange from the national point he was never far away  genetic formula of the vernacular language.
All historical beauty of colloqual and written  arsenal of Azerbaijan poetry is reflected in these hemistiches which are the first couplet of the ghazal  that could be assessed as a symbol of poetic beauty. It is not possible to construct these hemistiches without knowing the vernacular language, upgrowing  in mother language and folk poetry environment.
The image “restless heart” used in the couplet directly came from the folk literature conntects  the morale of the lyrical hero depicted in here with the deepest lays of thinking of the people of Azerbaijan. When the heart of Azeri turk-person becomes restless he turns to Deli Domrul ( poetic image), Deli Qaraca (poetic image) (Kitabi Dede Qorqud). Nobody can make an obstacle before his or her feelings erupting like mountainous river or like flood. A person of love like Dede Qorqud  can turn these feelings into sounds, words, melodies and rhymes. From this point, the character “restless heart”  and the psychological case expressed by this image indicates that Nasimi’s unit existence  and his psychological substance came up from the mentality of the people he belonged.  The tuning of human feelings on morale features in Nasimi’s rhymes sometimes leaves spots in his world of heart. The expression “restless heart”  sometimes contains other features as well. “According to internal sympathy,  in fact, the features of loosing  value belong to human being. According to Tasaffuv vision, feelings like malice and hatred causes in gloominess of heart. That is called “rust” in tasaffuv poetry but in live language it is named as “distrustfulnes”.” (1,136).
The poetic play-tejnis constructed with the omophors “khayalina” (your image) and “khayali” (dreamy) is not possible to be assesed as poetic construcion   composed mechanically by a poet. It must be emphasized that the couplets given are the first couplet of the rhyme.  That is a sign of poetic birth- it is manifest, came up extempore. The entire rhyme was constructed on this couple.  
                     
You deceitfully gret eyes deceived my heart,
Whoever falles in its trick, see what would happen.
The person who becomes captive of your eyes could understand me,
Let the person see his case who has not become your captive.
 
Nasimi forgot everybody since he found you,
He shrouded with you cloth and shawl rejecting  pure silk ( 2, 43).
This rhyme discovers place and the role of the tasaffuv visions of that time which were depicted in Nasimi’s creativity.  There is a unique poetic structure in Nasimi’s creativity which was set up on the basis of merging of tasaffuv and literature. In this rhyme, neither literature  as expression of  tasaffuv nor tasaffuv as idea expressed in literature leave each-other under shadow.  That is to say, it is a fact, Nasimi, being a hurufi poet propagates hurufism ideologies.  But there is a truth in this certain truth: Being  a thinker of hurufism in his poetry, Nasimi  is in love with literary words as well. While talking about the ideas he depicted in rhymes as hurufi thinker  we shouldn’t forget that Nasimi’s literary identity (his poetry) was never placed at lower than his faith.
The lays of literature with tasaffuv in the rhyme can not be commented as a relation of content with form.  In here, it would be simple to judge that meaning and literature form tasaffuv. Tasaffuv and literature form two lays of  independent thinking. The topic could be in all cases about merging of the two lays with each-other reciprocally. Not only tasaffuv but also literature itself is to be taken into consideration as idea to imagine it. Namely, there are lays of content and form of tasaffuv idea as well as literary idea.
If we entirely imagine this rhyme apart hurufism idea, then this rhyme would not loose anything from the excellence of its poetic structure. Because in here Nasimi didn’t make literary plan depend on tasaffuv plan.The ghazal is a master piece serving to depict poetic-emotional cases expressing human beauty- face of  beauty even without tasaffuv idea and its images.
 At the same time, the rhyme  represents tasaffuv idea by means of the system of figures serving entirely to depiction and expression. “(restless) heart”, “dream”, “eyes”, “lip”, “soul”, “cheek”,  “(tasty) word ”, “face”, “eyebrow” etc. are lexical elements of depcting the world through tasaffuv.  The “morale” of beloved is expressed, “secret” is commented, secrets of “beautiful face” are stated by these words and symbols.
Entire tassafuv expression of the rhyme serves to describe the morale of the beloved. A. Knish writes that, “the “way” of mystical in  the morale” of souphi “in his psychology” towards the God is a situation fallen in irrespect to the level he reached in God’s grip,  in his willing and asceticism practice. ( 3, 266).
So, the ghazal  which is mentioned, comprises incarnation of two structures in one structure- two rhymes in one rhyme.The first rhyme at first consists of content and expression plan dedicated to human beauty. That is an upper layer.  The second rhyme consists of content and expression plan dedicated to the  situation the beloved fallen in. That is the bottom layer. The combination of these two lays lifts Nasimi’s poetry up to high level as well as against the background of his rhyme the reflection of appearanc of divine-cognitive of the world in the Azerbaijan poetry.
Besides obtaining poetic forms of the folk literature of Azerbaijan, Nasimi rose them to high contextual and form  level. For ex, Qazi Burhaneddin noted down tuyugs in divine literature for the first time. The second poet who wrote tuyugs was Seyid Nasimi. The researchers are in impression that Nasimi was the most talented among the poets writing tuyug genres of poetry (4, 47).
It must be mentioned  that,  the approach of Nasimi to tuyuq genre  is realized,  assessed as his attitude to national literary genres. So tuyug genre is the only poetry shape used in divan literature by the national and turkish originated poets. He moved from the folk literature to the divine literature” ( 5, 108).
The master’s tuyugs are significant in the classic Azerbaijan literature from th epoint of tasaffuv views that  in these rhymes, literary form-tuyug genre never looses its genre features, poetic signs, with its high meanin at literary-ethics criteria level  while turning to bearer of tasaffuv idea.
 
Long time your grieve is at me,
Heart is a person handcuffed to you. 
  
                   Your leave knowked me down
                   You know my hope is with you ( 6 , 306).
 There are purely love lyrics, real physical-psycological love at first sight as well as  irphani ideas are expressed  in the tuyug . The interest of the literature-the poetics of the genre was sacrificed to neither in the first  outward hurufi loaded tuyug nor in the second  esoteric  loaded tuyug,on the contrary hurufi idea and national genre organicaly joint and served to the development of the literature.
 The name of  Nasimi’s master (teacher), Fazullah Naimi is praised as Hurufi ideologist as well as poetic figure:
Fazl is truth, aware of secrets,
Our all  lighted are from Fazl of the God.
Our duty was to  show Fazl God,
Our creator is Fazl truth  ( 6,21, 311).

Besides being knowing secrets,  leading all hurufi idea bearers,  building the world as an architecture, “Fazl-hak” is depicted as a  poetic figure for making rhymes  as anaphora.
Paying attention to moments expressing attitude in Nasimi’s poetry contains importance. These moments besides expressing Nasimi’s socio-psycological self-understanding, it demonstrates that  on the ground of Nasimi’s poetry Azerbaijan literature turned to self-understanding and on the whole submits the function of the grip:
 
        The youth, who doubt about my being souphi?
        Look at mirror if you are from people of pleasure?
 
     The wise can not go towards the truth if he doesnt ovewhelm his passion,
Show an evident if you claim that you are from the people of Irphan.
A person having mind in this world whould say a lie.
      What do you mean Nasimi, dont be that much unaware  ( 6,21, 49-50).

Nasimi called his style of peotic creativity “bird language” due to complpexity as he used  complex concepts, terms  and tasaffuv-irphan symbols in his creativity. But his role in the development of the Azerbaijan language is very significant. The researchers particularly emphasize this point. According to M. Ozaydin, Nasimi’s poetic language belonged to XIV century of the azerbaijan language and developed more, and was more precise and cleaner in comparison with Qazi Burhaneddin and Hasanoghlu. According to us, the biggest succes of Seyid Nasimi is that he used the turkish language as  language of poetry in the XIV century. It is very hard to say the turkish language to have been  used as language of poetry in Asia after Yunus Emre miracle late. It was Nasimi who first time created affect of poetry over the turkish language. ( 7, 272).
On the one side, Nasimi’s source of poetic power is inspired from his pasionate poetry talent, on the other side it got power from national culture that he belonged. In these sence, the images used in Nasimi’s crerativity  were not only related to common eastern characterized hurufi meetings but also were related to the mythological meetings of the people. According to S. Shikhiyeva, while approaching to folk believes which were real protector of the views, Nasimi myth didn’t track to elaborate the knowledges in this field and converted those  into rhyme from the point of tasaffuv and hurufism (8, 20).
Inspite Nasimi was an outstanding hurufi idealogist, his poetry identity never melt or disappeared within the hurufism identity, Nasimi remained a figure of literature along his life and consciously served  for the development of the common turkish literature. The notions used in the poetics of Nasimi’s creativity confirms it too.According to I.Yakar,  applying classical contents on the turkish as   the 14th century classic turkish literature which could be considered as early, Nasimi masterly rose the notions of “word” in his poetry and caused in the defining of the divine poetry. The closeness between Nasimi and Fuzuli’s styles, joint interests, poetic blocks and Fuzuli’s imitative poems about Nasimi notify the closeness of their world view.” (9, 115).  Nasimi attempted to convey  his thought by using adjectivess and metaphors like rhyme, poetry, word, logic, speech and to glorify his poets he used words like albumen, roll, jewel, drop, civility, shroff, truth, sweet, soul, water-life, kevser, revelation etc. ( 10,325).
“Nasimi was not only a hurufi but also he influenced to all literary environment as a master of poetry. Except Azerbaijan and Iranian poets, Ottoman poets even the uzbek poets respected  and considered him as master of poetry. Even the opinion of an outstanding representative of the turkmen poetry Mahdumgulu about Nasimi and his critics about pealing of Nasimi’s skin show the liteary power of Nasimi”(11, 42 )
Nasimi’ ‘s creativity is grandious from the point of literary capacity as well as from the point of  senses existed in.  Nasimi developed tasaffuv-irphan ideas  in his creative works  which were characteristic  for middle aged history of Azerbaijan national thinking.  The peculiarity of his creativity is that, besides taking the all responsibilities of hurufism ideology on his shoulders which expanded to a wide geographical space, he did never forget interests of literature and he contributed with his creative work to the  development of the Azerbaijan poetry and the literary language.
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