Targeted program approach in the state environmental policy and its application in the Republic of Azerbaijan

Classical Bulletin
Special Issue 1, 2018
doi: 10.33909/cb/94.2018.02.006
Sevil Imamverdi Mammadova
Academy of Public Administration under the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan, E-mail: [email protected]
The article presents the implementation of the state's ecological policy through targeted programs and reveals essence, features, advantages and disadvantages of targeted program approach and method applied as a systematic approach in solving ecological problems. It analyses practical aspects of the realization of targeted ecological programs in the Republic of Azerbaijan, European Union, US and Russian Federation and gives recommendations and suggestions for providing their efficiency.   
Keywords: state’s ecological policy, the targeted program method, targeted ecological programs, practical aspects, and efficiency

'The moral economy of the English crowd in the eighteenth century'

By: Caroline Walker Bynum
Historical cultural Department of London Univ., UK
doi: 10.33909/cb/94.2018.04.46 
CLASSICAL BULLETIN Volume: 94 Issue: 4 
Pages: 97-108 Published: DEC 2018

Cultural history is not to be defined by a set of rules or a distinct subject matter. It is not just, what the English crowddenotes, a study of the activities within the sphere of 'high culture'; nor is it exclusively to be seen as an exercise in interpretation of symbolic acts and rituals of people in the past. Some observers have been frustrated with cultural history that seems at times to be the 'history of everything', not without reason. There is more than a grain of truth in the view that cultural history can be exercised in every field of activity: politics, economics, kinship, gender, religion and all their interlocking and overlapping domains.
Keywords: Moral economy, English crowd, workers

A research about the most formative impact in urging historians

By: Lyndal Roper
International Society for Cultural History, USA
doi: 10.33909/cb/94.2018.04.44 
CLASSICAL BULLETIN Volume: 94 Issue: 4 
Pages: 57-73 Published: DEC 2018

Scholars have tried, for instance, to explain how the ascending bourgeoisie influenced various parameters of concert life in the eighteenth and nineteenth century. They have examined changing behavioural patterns of the audience (Müller 2015, Johnson 1994) and a ‘transformation of taste’ (Weber 2000). Most of the studies, however, do not really attempt to explain what role the emotional impact of music itself played. How did audiences experience different musical styles in different contexts? This article approaches this rather difficult question by applying a comparative methodology. The starting point is the observation that the performance contexts of ‘classical’ music were far from being homogeneous. By examining four performances of Ludwig van Beethoven's Leonora Overture No. 3 in highly different social contexts in Berlin from 1895–1907 — ranging from gala concerts of working class choirs, to open air military concerts, to performances in bourgeois circles — this article attempts to illustrate how the analysis of concert contexts can serve as a means to better understand the emotional experiences of concert audiences.
Kewords: historians, important thesis, classical study

Exciting information about workers, working-class politics, peasant economies of Germany

By: Joan Wallach Scott
Howard Chiang, University of California, Davis, USA
doi: 10.33909/cb/94.2018.04.43 
CLASSICAL BULLETIN Volume: 94 Issue: 4 
Pages: 42-56 Published: DEC 2018

So, for example, alongside a demographic historian who calculates the historical movements of the size of family, or age at marriage, cultural historians probe the ideas about family, obligation, conjugality, with all the contradictions and points of pressure and conflict which they induced in people's lives. Or, alongside the study of doctrine, theology and ecclesiastical structures – areas long studied by historians of religion – cultural historians seek out the practices through which religion was disseminated, experienced, interpreted and applied. This has meant that cultural historians have often also been innovators in the search for sound and viable ways of approaching and identifying ways into the daily lives of people who did not generate a great deal of documentation. Yet, it is wrong to think of cultural history as a 'people's history' alone; its operations are as illuminating when applied to courts, politics and armies; to the art and clothing, literature, grammar and music of the few and privileged.
Keywords: workers, working-class politics, peasant economies of Germany

Formation and development of the legislative basis of the state information policy

By: Khalid Niyazov
Institute of the Law and Human Rights of Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Azerbaijan
doi: 10.33909/cb/94.2018.03.45 
CLASSICAL BULLETIN Volume: 94 Issue: 4 
Pages: 74-96 Published: DEC 2018
Azerbaijan has undertaken complex measures to ensure mass media, freedom of speech, information, freedom of speech, and individual in the past 25 years, as a country that has chosen a path of democratic, legal, secular state building. These events are continuing in the present day too and information - international experience is deeply studied to form an open society, and national legislation is adequately upgraded to the demands of the new era. The state, as the main provider of information freedom, determines the legal regime of information, the rules of access to information, the rules of access to information and the rules for the freedom of information as a whole with the help of legal regulation. At the same time, it imposes legal remedies to prevent the exercise of this freedom. After the restoration of state independence in Azerbaijan, a new stage in the development of mass media, which is an essential attribute of civil society and the rule of law, has been laid. The fact that our country holds one of the leading places in the CIS for the dynamics of freedom of speech and press in the last 25 years is conditioned by these facts. The development history of the Azerbaijani press has passed a long and complicated way. Generally speaking, although the history of the press as its public institution is not as old as history, it is gratifying that the history of the Azerbaijani press is one of the first in Central Asia and Eastern Europe.
Key words:   state information policy, information law, freedom of thought, speech and press, information space, information security, information society.