By: Danielle Mory Smyth
University of Windsor
Abstract: If the world is a metaphoric mint, who better to manipulate its social possibilities than the goldsmith? Because of the nature of their business - "the quintessential luxury trade" (Styles 112) - London's goldsmiths had frequent dealings with all degrees of gentlemen. In city comedies generally, the business of change and exchange with its attendant vocabulary (the language of conversion) is a vehicle for exploring broader changes. Exploring social conversion in the context of the early modern goldsmith's shop offers a playwright particularly rich metaphoric possibilities, for the goldsmith converted things on a quotidian basis. As a banker, he exchanged gold coins for silver and silver for gold. As a craftsman, he converted old plate or bullion into new plate. As an agent of the crown, he took foreign coin, old coin, and bullion to the Mint, where it was converted into new currency. This paper explains the cultural status of the goldsmith in early modern England, and then turns to Thomas Middleton's A Chaste Maid in Cheapside (1613) to show how the goldsmith's imbrication in the business of literal conversion offers a powerful context for an examination of social conversion. The malleable nature of gold - Yellowhammer's medium - provides a metaphor for his protean social identity. In this play, I argue, Middleton invokes the rich language of the goldsmiths' trade in order to discipline the socially ambitious Yellowhammers and to demonstrate the limitations of upward mobility in early modern London.
Keywords: Goldsmyth, Accident, company, assayers.
By: Alizon Brunning
University of Central Lancashire
Abstract: In Golding's translation of Ovid's Metamorphoses he describes the Golden Age as a world of plenty and abundance: The springtime lasted all the year, and Zephyr with his mild And gentle blast did cherish things that grew of own accord.
The ground untilled all kinds of fruits did plenteously afford. No muck nor tillage was bestowed on lean and barren land,
To make the corn of better head and ranker for to spread. Then streams ran milk, then streams ran wine, and yellow honey flowed
From each green tree whereon the rays of fiery Phoebus glowed. (Abrams 122/128).
Keywords: Devine French, Devine Comedy, jacoebeans
By: Julie Sanders
In a telling scene from the film version of Henry James's The Wings of the Dove (dir. Iain Softley, 1998), Merton Densher, already engaged in an illicit encounter with his lover Kate Croy, meets unexpectedly at an art gallery with the American heiress Milly Theale. She takes him to view Gustav Klimt's painting of Danae. What makes this visual image provided by the canvas symbolically apposite for the film audience's own spectatorship of the Milly-Merton encounter is the explicit connection it makes between sex and money, the two driving forces of James's 1902 novel. In classical mythology, Danae was impregnated by Jove in the form of a shower of gold, but the coins flowing into the female protagonist's vagina in the Klimt interpretation are far from ambiguous signifiers. An intriguing question therefore is at what stage did this highly secularised reading of the Danae story – one in which the shower of gold becomes money in its most tangible form – begin to predominate? An investigation of early modern drama begins to suggest that it was in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries that this idea took hold. This essay is a distillation of that search.
Keywrods:drama, Europe, Mythes, History
Xavier Univ, Cincinnati, OH 45207 USA
Abstract: An argument can be put forward that perhaps the array of literature which relates to this field of study may not be overly familiar to many developmental psychologists, who research the concept of classical music and its relationship with youth development possibly due to a lack of communication among researchers and because of publication trends in developmental journals which may perhaps overlook the concept in general. This begs the question. Is this concept perhaps under researched from within the world of academia and as a result of this, is the youth development sector in Ireland for example, perhaps lacking a vital resource, that being, the role and influence of classical influence in the development of Ireland's youth? So as to endeavour to answer this question, this article will look at informing on current knowledge of how engagement with classical music, either from a listening or a participatory perspective can play a role in the psychosocial development of adolescents. To this end, three possible key observations in the context of this study maybe critiqued and discussed in light of recent empirical research, key observations which maybe of vital importance and relevance for one who may wish to undertake a broader dissertation on this interesting topic.
Language as a Mass consiousness
in the ancient peoples.
By: Koester, Isabel K.
Univ. N Carolina, Greensboro, NC 27412 USA
Policy scope includes institutional and non - spiritual and moral sphere. This includes political consciousness, political culture, political mentality of political ideologies. The basis of the spiritual and moral sphere yavlyaetsyapoliticheskoe consciousness, which is the individualized human perception of the world of politics. In the event that different ideas, attitudes, beliefs and shared recognized by other members of the community they are subject to some degree of consensus and acquire the status of "social facts" by Emile Durkheim terminology. They determine that what people believe this community, with what are considered to be, what they think, how and what is judged. In this case, the idea of the subjective individual becomes common that unites people who appear conscious willingness to defend the idea as their own. In this case we can not speak of individualized consciousness, and the public or group conscience, without keeping in mind that a society or group - is the thinking subject.
Keywords:language, Mass consciousness, ancient people