A classical original letter remain in the archives, historical Epistemology and the Origins of Writing

By: Van Hecke, Pierre J. 

Given the great variety of non-linguistic structures, functions, and techniques of knowledge representation discussed here, it no longer makes sense to speak about some presumed unified origins, or linear development of writing. The term “origins of writing” is related to historical developments in huge geographical areas over a time-span of some 2000 years. Already the comparatively small region of the Near East from which I took my examples shows an enormous richness of different developments, which all contributed to the emergence of writing. If one takes into account developments in such different settings as those of Egypt, China or Mesoamerica, the complexity of different developments is increased even more. This brings me back to the problem of monogenesis or polygenesis of writing that I raised at the beginning of the present paper. Whatever the eventual solution might be to this problem, it has to take into account the quite different ways writing in one culture may influence the emergence of writing in others. Even if we accept the monogenesis hypothesis, the complexity of the historical emergence and development of writing will not be significantly reduced. Proto-Elamite did not developed in the same way under the influence of proto-cuneiform as did Hittite or Minoan writing under the influence of cuneiform, or Japanese writing under the influence of Chinese, to say nothing of developments such as the emergence of the Indus script, of Chinese itself, or of Maya writing, which cannot easily be related to models of monogenesis and diffusion. Even the final outcome of the development, that is, the developed system of real writing, can be quite different in different cultures, depending on the different structures of the languages that are finally represented. This historical variety should be kept in mind when we compare semiotic developments across many cultures. In fact, due to its historical variety, questions relating to the development of early writing systems will probably only be resolved through the cooperation of specialists from different fields.
Keywords: classical original letter, archives, historical Epistemology, the Origins of Writing

The ancient practicies: ancient archaic Mesopotamian tablets

By: Dille, Sarah J.

Textual analysis has shown that administrative accounting of mixed grain products occasionally employed, in the totals, derived numerical ŠE systems that were different from the notations normally associated with the products listed in the tablet. In a number of instances, the most common adoption of the Š notation to indicate grain in general is replaced by the use of several specific derived grain capacity systems. One main reason for such practices could be the necessity to identify in the total, by adopting the appropriate numerical notation, the basic grain product used for the production of the different derived products listed and sub-totaled in the tablets. Another peculiarity in archaic scribal administrative practices can be found in the texts which adopt mixed notations in totals combining different grain products. The use of one numerical notation in totaling two different grain products, qualifying a single number sign with recourse to some member of the other numerical notation, can be easily explained as a means to simplify the recording of the accounts, at the same time indicating the presence of the two different products. More important for understanding the administrative practices in the archaic period is the apparent presence, at least in one text, of an account based on the “weighted mean” calculations. Use of the “weighted mean,” or any other numerical mean, may imply the development of the concept of “statistics” and their employment in the administrative statement of accounting. It is worth noting that the use of statistics in town/state administration makes sense, expecially if its purpose is to calculate budget accounts for future expenditures based on the “mean” expenditures of past periods. It seems we may be able to trace such practices, which were certainly common in later periods,[27] back as early as in the Uruk III/Jemdet Nasr period.
Keywords: Mesopotamian tablets, ancient langauge, historical texts,oriental Studies

Eastern languages: sociocultural situation and the development of the mass language education

By: Kostoff, Steven D.

An argument can be put forward that perhaps the array of literature which relates to this field of study may not be overly familiar to many developmental psychologists, who research the concept of classical music and its relationship with youth development possibly due to a lack of communication among researchers and because of publication trends in developmental journals which may perhaps overlook the concept in general. This begs the question. Is this concept perhaps under researched from within the world of academia and as a result of this, is the youth development sector in Ireland for example, perhaps lacking a vital resource, that being, the role and influence of classical influence in the development of Ireland's youth? So as to endeavour to answer this question, this article will look at informing on current knowledge of how engagement with classical music, either from a listening or a participatory perspective can play a role in the psychosocial development of adolescents. To this end, three possible key observations in the context of this study maybe critiqued and discussed in light of recent empirical research, key observations which maybe of vital importance and relevance for one who may wish to undertake a broader dissertation on this interesting topic.
Keywords: ancient conception, vital importance, ancient languages, sociocultural situation

The Language as the spiritual culture in the Modern Society

By Balwin, Barry

Church tradition interprets the term "spiritual" in contrast material, the solid "is all that is peculiar to or substantially similar to like ethereal spirit, and is under the influence or action Spirit ". Dictionary of Russian language Shvedova N. gives the following definition: State of spiritual and cultural life of modern humanity is increasingly growing sense of anxiety over his future. Thinking about educating the younger generation, we often use such terms as "spirituality" and "culture", which is unthinkable without the other, and are considered in the integrity and unity, even though many people think that spirituality - this is the culture. The term "spirituality" has been applied recently. There are many interpretations of the concept of values. Dictionary "Psychology" treats "spirituality" with a materialistic point of view: "It is an expression of the motivation of the individual needs of the perfect in knowledge and social need" to act for others".  "Spirituality - a property of the soul, which consists in the predominance of the spiritual, moral, and intellectual interests of the material", that is, determines the "spirituality" as a moral message. Philosophical Dictionary gives the interpretation of the term is: "Removal from the low-lying, rough sense of interest, the pursuit of inner perfection, the height of the spirit." These examples show that spirituality - the concept of multi-faceted and very important for the social processes, as well as for the individual. Each person understands spirituality differently. Some people think that spirituality - a man of high moral quality, harmony and spiritual purity, others consider culture and good manners, and associate it with the church. Spirituality includes the priorities and values of ideological character. This desire to devote his life to the good of their country, its history, the idea of human ideals, his place in society, love of family and friends, to the traditions and customs of their people to achieve their goals.
Keywords:  language, spirit, epistemology, rough sense, morality.

Cognitive and pragmatic peculiarities of the category of case in the languages belonging to different language systems

by Ayten Mahammad Bayramova

The article deals with the semantic changes in the application of the category of case in the languages belonging to different language systems. The studies evidence that the cognitive aspects influence the choice of corresponding grammatical means while transmitting the information.  There is no direct correspondence, equivalency among the cases used in languages belonging to different languages. The words with case suffixes create relations with other words in the sentence. The case is defined depending on the peculiarities of these relations. Difference in the relations to the space in different languages influences the content of the information, because the suffix of case adds grammatical meaning to the lexical meaning of the word. The speedy movement of modern linguistics towards semantics catches the attention. The main function of language relies on semantics and serves the aim of turning the intercourse into reality. There is no intercourse without meaning and content. In some issues the traditional grammars find it difficult to clarify different issues or there are contradictions in their explanations in which we do not find concise answers. The said does not cross out the merits of the traditional grammar in the development of linguistics. On the contrary, it shows that by basing on its results and achievements it creates grounds for the transfer of the researches to functional and semantic fields. Though the category of case, which takes an exceptional place among the grammatical cases of noun, could draw the attention to itself in XX century, the tangled issues connected with it have not yet found their solution in the second decade of XXI century.

Key words: case, cognitional, pragmatics, communicativeness, context, lexical meaning, grammatical meaning