Public libraries in the Roman Empire


Classical Bulletin
Special Issue 2, 2018
doi: 10.33909/cb/94.2018.02.45
Public libraries in the Roman Empire

By: Hunter Bernstein, Sean
Univ St Thomas, St Paul, MN 55105 USA.

Abstract
If the libraries of Rome are inspired by the Hellenistic model incarnated by the two famous rival libraries of Alexandria and Pergamum, they innovate by their objectives and their architectural disposition. They are no longer, in fact, solely in the service of the sovereign and the privileged community of scholars he protects and maintains. Henceforth, taking into account the palatability of literature and knowledge, they are open to a wide audience. Separated from places of power, they become autonomous "living spaces" (W. Marx) by confusing reserves, consultation and meeting rooms. Finally, they willingly juxtapose two sections of equal importance, one Greek, the other Latin. The architectural translation of this program, elaborated in its fullness from the middle of the second century AD, is distinguished by rectangular niches arranged in the thickness of the walls and intended to receive books, the presence of an exedra (or an axial apse) to house a monumental statue and often, finally, a double sidewall establishing a vacuum to protect the works against moisture. Let's take three examples. In Rome, two symmetrical libraries were placed at the southern corners of the enclosure of the giant baths of Caracalla. Only that of the southwest is now preserved. It is a rectangular room 38 m by 22, open on the courtyard of the baths by a colonnade. The three useful walls were dug out of 32 niches arranged on two levels. In the middle of the back wall was an apse that housed a colossal statue on a pedestal. Contemporary of this library (first half of the 3rd century AD) is that of Thamugadi (Timgad) in the province of Numidia. It is one of the best preserved of all Roman Africa. Of semicircular plan, the reading room presented a diameter of 12 m and opened on a court with portico. The niches were perhaps divided over two floors and the lighting was provided by a large window pierced in the frontal wall. At the other end of the Empire, in Nysa (now Sultanhisar in Turkey), the reading room measures 14.8m by 13.4m. This two-storey building has the usual space for ventilation and insulation between the walls carved out of niches and the outer walls.
Keywrords: Orthodoxy, challenging, unusual ideas

OLYMPIC GAMES, Ancient Greece


Classical Bulletin
Special Issue 2, 2018
doi: 10.33909/cb/94.2018.02.44
OLYMPIC GAMES, Ancient Greece
By: Mac Medlen Vouler
Univ S Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 USA.

Abstract
As in our days, winning at the Olympic Games brings glory and fame, which is reflected on the city. The list of olympionike is long, but some names remain etched in history. Coroebos (or Koroïbos), winner of the stadium race in 776 BC, remains the first Olympionike whose name has come down to us; Akhantos of Sparta won in 720 BC the first Olympic dolichos; Lampis de Laconie is honored in 708 BC to win the first edition of the pentathle; Onomastos of Smyrna is, in 688 BC, the first laureate of pugilat ... During the first two centuries of the Games, the athletes of Sparta are particularly brilliant: from 776 to 576 BC, the Spartans would have won forty-six of the eighty-one Olympic competitions. Among these Spartan champions, the fast Chionis stands out: from 668 to 656 BC, he wins the stadium race four times consecutively. In the 6th century BC, Crotone, a small city of Calabria founded less than a century ago by the Achaeans, knows a sudden radiation. Certainly, its port is beautiful, its large fleet, its mild climate, good management brings him wealth, but all this is nothing: the exploits of its competitors at the Olympic Games earned him his fame. His champions stand out among others in the prestigious stadium race: Glaukias (588), Lykinos (584), Hippostratos (564, 560), Diognetos (548), Ischomachos (508, 504), Tisikrates (496, 492), Astylos ( 488, 484, 480), which also wins three times the diaulos, are olympionike. But the most prestigious of all these champions is the wrestler Milon.
Keywords: Olymic Games, Ancient Greece, Olympic competitions

History of criminal law among the Romans


Classical Bulletin
Special Issue 2, 2018
doi: 10.33909/cb/94.2018.02.43
History of criminal law among the Romans
by Green Carin
Univ St Thomas, St Paul, MN 55105 USA.

Abstract
Perhaps it is worth the interest of a judicial organization that one might suppose to have lent itself to the cruelties of a Tiberius or to the fury of a Caligula. The period of servitude and debasement, condemned to submit to these detestable princes, presents to us only penal legislation dishonored by despotism, and very different from that which had seen the good times of Rome; but we still find there, with useful lessons, the vestiges of the institutions formerly protecting the liberty of the citizens, then diverted from their primitive sense, and we can measure the importance of these forms formerly so respected, by the efforts what some emperors did to distort or destroy them. This study therefore offers, even from this point of view, lessons that can not be neglected. One of the causes of the little favor it gets is indicated in a recently published pamphlet on this subject; the author rightly points out that the teaching of this part of the criminal law holds very little place in our law schools; the Institutes of Justinian which serve as a basis for the teaching of Roman law devote a very incomplete title to a simple sketch of the Roman procedure and penalty. Moreover, books are also lacking on this interesting subject, and the authors who wrote in the sixteenth century are still an indispensable resource for the study of this subject; we must cite, in the first line, the work of Sigonius, many times abridged or commented, and that of this excellent Pierre Ayrault which contains, it is true, a less sure erudition, but whose reading is so endearing because of the profound and the author's sincere love for the just and the true, and the courage with which he alone defended the rights of humanity at a time when they were so odiously ignored. Let us mention again with M. Laboulaye, Paul Manuce and Hotoman who were writing at the same time, as well as Ferratius, summarized by Beaufort, who had already propagated Sigonius's book in the same way.
Keywords: historical, Romans, law and crime

Greek Technologies of Antiquity


Classical Bulletin
Special Issue 2, 2018
doi: 10.33909/cb/94.2018.02.42
Greek Technologies of Antiquity

By: Quarterone Chrol
Marshall Univ, Huntington, WV 25755 USA.

ABSTRACT
When one evokes the world of ancient Greece, one immediately thinks of his sculptures and temples, and in two words almost inseparable, to Greek art. We will then talk about the great philosophers, then the Athenian democracy. The ancient theater, no doubt, poetry, perhaps. We also know that Greece shone in the scientific field. In mathematics, we have the memories of the theorems of Pythagoras or Thales, of the geometry of Euclid, in the arithmetic of the "Eratosthenes sieve". And then in physics of course, the principle of Archimedes. In astronomy, the name of the planets alone will remind us of something. With more than a thousand years in advance, the Greeks had discovered that the Earth was round, had calculated its diameter and the distance that separates it from the Moon. But what do we know about the technology of the ancient Greeks, the machines, the devices they used? Huge surprises await us in this area, because ancient Greece also swarmed with engineers and inventors, some as creative as Leonardo da Vinci, except that their achievements actually worked and sometimes still work today.
Keywords: Epic, Greek, technology, antiquity

Special Issue II Volume 94, 2018

VOLUME 94 * SPECIAL ISSUE 2
Contents



Greek Technologies of Antiquity
Quarterone Chrol, p.6
Classical Bulletin, Special Issue 2, 2018,  doi: 10.33909/cb/94.2018.02.42
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History of criminal law among the Romans
Greeen Carin, p.22
Classical Bulletin, Special Issue 2, 2018,  doi: 10.33909/cb/94.2018.02.43
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Olympic Games, Ancient Greece
Mac Medlen Vouler, p. 37
Classical Bulletin, Special Issue 2, 2018,  doi: 10.33909/cb/94.2018.02.44
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Public libraries in the Roman Empire
Hunter Bernstein, p.48
Classical Bulletin, Special Issue 2, 2018,  doi: 10.33909/cb/94.2018.02.45
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I study / my dream job – Testimonials
Dyson Henry, p.58
Classical Bulletin, Special Issue 2, 2018,  doi: 10.33909/cb/94.2018.02.46
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The history of communication: from prehistory to the present day /
Humble Noreen, p.83
Classical Bulletin, Special Issue 2, 2018,  doi: 10.33909/cb/94.2018.02.49
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Information and press as Institutions of Socio – political system of Azerbaijan Government
Vugar Rahimzade, p. 108
Classical Bulletin, Special Issue 2, 2018,  doi: 10.33909/cb/94.2018.02.47
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Christianity: an imperialist and opportunist religion of Roman origin
Beasom Patrick, p.118
Classical Bulletin, Special Issue 2, 2018,  doi: 10.33909/cb/94.2018.03.38
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