The history of communication: From prehistory to the present day


Classical Bulletin
Special Issue 2, 2018
    doi: 10.33909/cb/94.2018.02.49
The history of communication:
From prehistory to the present day
By: Humble Noreen
Univ St Thomas, St Paul, MN 55105 USA.

Abstract
Indeed, at that time, men started to communicate thanks to the rock art.
The term rock art qualifies artistic manifestations on rocky supports. This form of art is the only cultural event that has continued for more than 3000 years without interruption.
For the realized ones, the prehistoric men had several techniques:
- Engraving, where the artists hammered the rock support with a hard stone.
- Painting: the artists used colored powders that came from crushed minerals. The painting allowed them to represent the manes, hairs and fur of animals.
Rock paintings could mark a territory of habitation or hunting.
Keywords: prehistory time, present day, communication

I study / my dream job – Testimonials


Classical Bulletin
Special Issue 2, 2018
doi: 10.33909/cb/94.2018.02.46
I study / my dream job – Testimonials

by Dyson Henry
Illinois University, USA
Abstract
"I started English classes at the age of 9. The teacher was not particularly fun and friendly, but I did not care, I thought it was fantastic to be able to understand and speak another language!
I was so happy to have made this discovery that I wanted to share it with everyone, and the best way to pass on a language was for me to teach it. Since then, this desire to become a teacher has not left me.
My vocation having appeared so early, the choice of my studies was not very complicated. I was one of the lucky and lucky people who already knew where to go and how.
From high school, I knew that I was going to write a baccalaureate and that I would finish in English. Finally, I first went through a provincial preparatory class, before finishing with a degree in English.
"Keywords: Testimonial, Classical bulletin, study

Public libraries in the Roman Empire


Classical Bulletin
Special Issue 2, 2018
doi: 10.33909/cb/94.2018.02.45
Public libraries in the Roman Empire

By: Hunter Bernstein, Sean
Univ St Thomas, St Paul, MN 55105 USA.

Abstract
If the libraries of Rome are inspired by the Hellenistic model incarnated by the two famous rival libraries of Alexandria and Pergamum, they innovate by their objectives and their architectural disposition. They are no longer, in fact, solely in the service of the sovereign and the privileged community of scholars he protects and maintains. Henceforth, taking into account the palatability of literature and knowledge, they are open to a wide audience. Separated from places of power, they become autonomous "living spaces" (W. Marx) by confusing reserves, consultation and meeting rooms. Finally, they willingly juxtapose two sections of equal importance, one Greek, the other Latin. The architectural translation of this program, elaborated in its fullness from the middle of the second century AD, is distinguished by rectangular niches arranged in the thickness of the walls and intended to receive books, the presence of an exedra (or an axial apse) to house a monumental statue and often, finally, a double sidewall establishing a vacuum to protect the works against moisture. Let's take three examples. In Rome, two symmetrical libraries were placed at the southern corners of the enclosure of the giant baths of Caracalla. Only that of the southwest is now preserved. It is a rectangular room 38 m by 22, open on the courtyard of the baths by a colonnade. The three useful walls were dug out of 32 niches arranged on two levels. In the middle of the back wall was an apse that housed a colossal statue on a pedestal. Contemporary of this library (first half of the 3rd century AD) is that of Thamugadi (Timgad) in the province of Numidia. It is one of the best preserved of all Roman Africa. Of semicircular plan, the reading room presented a diameter of 12 m and opened on a court with portico. The niches were perhaps divided over two floors and the lighting was provided by a large window pierced in the frontal wall. At the other end of the Empire, in Nysa (now Sultanhisar in Turkey), the reading room measures 14.8m by 13.4m. This two-storey building has the usual space for ventilation and insulation between the walls carved out of niches and the outer walls.
Keywrords: Orthodoxy, challenging, unusual ideas

OLYMPIC GAMES, Ancient Greece


Classical Bulletin
Special Issue 2, 2018
doi: 10.33909/cb/94.2018.02.44
OLYMPIC GAMES, Ancient Greece
By: Mac Medlen Vouler
Univ S Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 USA.

Abstract
As in our days, winning at the Olympic Games brings glory and fame, which is reflected on the city. The list of olympionike is long, but some names remain etched in history. Coroebos (or Koroïbos), winner of the stadium race in 776 BC, remains the first Olympionike whose name has come down to us; Akhantos of Sparta won in 720 BC the first Olympic dolichos; Lampis de Laconie is honored in 708 BC to win the first edition of the pentathle; Onomastos of Smyrna is, in 688 BC, the first laureate of pugilat ... During the first two centuries of the Games, the athletes of Sparta are particularly brilliant: from 776 to 576 BC, the Spartans would have won forty-six of the eighty-one Olympic competitions. Among these Spartan champions, the fast Chionis stands out: from 668 to 656 BC, he wins the stadium race four times consecutively. In the 6th century BC, Crotone, a small city of Calabria founded less than a century ago by the Achaeans, knows a sudden radiation. Certainly, its port is beautiful, its large fleet, its mild climate, good management brings him wealth, but all this is nothing: the exploits of its competitors at the Olympic Games earned him his fame. His champions stand out among others in the prestigious stadium race: Glaukias (588), Lykinos (584), Hippostratos (564, 560), Diognetos (548), Ischomachos (508, 504), Tisikrates (496, 492), Astylos ( 488, 484, 480), which also wins three times the diaulos, are olympionike. But the most prestigious of all these champions is the wrestler Milon.
Keywords: Olymic Games, Ancient Greece, Olympic competitions

History of criminal law among the Romans


Classical Bulletin
Special Issue 2, 2018
doi: 10.33909/cb/94.2018.02.43
History of criminal law among the Romans
by Green Carin
Univ St Thomas, St Paul, MN 55105 USA.

Abstract
Perhaps it is worth the interest of a judicial organization that one might suppose to have lent itself to the cruelties of a Tiberius or to the fury of a Caligula. The period of servitude and debasement, condemned to submit to these detestable princes, presents to us only penal legislation dishonored by despotism, and very different from that which had seen the good times of Rome; but we still find there, with useful lessons, the vestiges of the institutions formerly protecting the liberty of the citizens, then diverted from their primitive sense, and we can measure the importance of these forms formerly so respected, by the efforts what some emperors did to distort or destroy them. This study therefore offers, even from this point of view, lessons that can not be neglected. One of the causes of the little favor it gets is indicated in a recently published pamphlet on this subject; the author rightly points out that the teaching of this part of the criminal law holds very little place in our law schools; the Institutes of Justinian which serve as a basis for the teaching of Roman law devote a very incomplete title to a simple sketch of the Roman procedure and penalty. Moreover, books are also lacking on this interesting subject, and the authors who wrote in the sixteenth century are still an indispensable resource for the study of this subject; we must cite, in the first line, the work of Sigonius, many times abridged or commented, and that of this excellent Pierre Ayrault which contains, it is true, a less sure erudition, but whose reading is so endearing because of the profound and the author's sincere love for the just and the true, and the courage with which he alone defended the rights of humanity at a time when they were so odiously ignored. Let us mention again with M. Laboulaye, Paul Manuce and Hotoman who were writing at the same time, as well as Ferratius, summarized by Beaufort, who had already propagated Sigonius's book in the same way.
Keywords: historical, Romans, law and crime