Christianity: an imperialist and opportunist religion of Roman origin


Classical Bulletin
Issue 3, 2018
doi: 10.33909/cb/94.2018.03.38

Christianity: an imperialist and opportunist religion of Roman origin

By: Beasom Patrick
Univ N Carolina, Greensboro, NC 27412 USA.

Abstract:
Until when was the Christian movement a Jewish current in rivalry with other Jewish currents? What does the gaze of "others", Greco-Roman authorities and intellectuals, learn on this point? It has often been argued that Julius Caesar declared Judaism religio licita and Domitian, Christianity religio illicita, to affirm that the Roman authorities at the end of the first century distinguished Christianity from Judaism; in fact, these concepts do not appear to have had any legal reality and seem an invention of modern historiography. However, at the time of Caesar, Jews have the right to practice their customs and follow their laws. At the beginning of the fourth century, they were exempted from the obligation to offer libation to the idols that Diocletian had imposed on all peoples (according to TJ Avodah Zarah 5, 4).
We must then turn to the pagan intellectuals. In the first decades of the second century, Suetonius, Tacitus, Pliny the Younger are sensitive to the originality of the Christian movement. But, at the same time, Tacitus accuses Christians of hatred against the human race, while Fronton de Cirta, the master of Marcus Aurelius, recounts their ritual meal where they kill a child, drink its blood and devour its flesh and at in which they practice incest; at about the same time, the philosopher Justin converted to Christianity is accused of atheism; he replies with force: "atheists, yes, we are, but of your gods". These accusations are in fact resumptions of anti-Semitic themes developed by the Egyptian priests against the Jews (see the Counter-Apion of Flavius Josephus). Anti-Judaism seems to have been born in Egyptian houses of life. The Jews were accused of amixia, unsociability, atheism, ritual murder. But the very fact that the accusations directed against the Christians take up the old accusations against the Jews is only possible if, in the middle of the second century, the Christian movement is not distinguished from Judaism, even though its singularity is affirmed. About 170, in his True Speech, the pagan Celsus describes well this complex articulation between Judaism and Christianity: the second is a dissidence of the first, which was dissident of the Egyptian religion; the legitimacy of Judaism is therefore weak; that of Christianity is nil. At that time, therefore, the partition between the two religions is not realized, at least in the eyes of the pagans.
Keywords: roman, origin, christinaity

Information and Press as Institutions of Socio-Political System of Azerbaijan Government


Classical Bulletin
Special Issue 2, 2018
doi: 10.33909/cb/94.2018.02.47

Information and Press as Institutions of Socio-Political System of Azerbaijan Government

By: Rahimzade Vugar Ganjali
Azerbaijan National Academy of Siences, Nakhcivan Section

ABSTRACT
Information policyis an activity of a person to actualize and realize his interests in society by means of creation, modification, preservation and transfer of all types of information. Information policy is a special field of people`s activity who is involved in the presentation and dissemination of information (political figures, scientists, analysts, journalists, listeners, readers and etc.) that meets interests of social groups and public institutions. Information policy has two types: state and private.
Information policy is informatiology of the mass media. Informatiology of the mass media considers how it shapes ideological, political, economic and other views, thoughts, knowledge and evaluation that influence the welfare, culture, conduct of people and all sides of their life. According to the main principle of the implementation of state information policy the interests of a person and state must be mutually preserved. The mass media can operate freely and play a growing role in public changes.
Keywords: information policy, informatiology, mass media, information society, Socio-Political System Internet media.

The history of communication: From prehistory to the present day


Classical Bulletin
Special Issue 2, 2018
    doi: 10.33909/cb/94.2018.02.49
The history of communication:
From prehistory to the present day
By: Humble Noreen
Univ St Thomas, St Paul, MN 55105 USA.

Abstract
Indeed, at that time, men started to communicate thanks to the rock art.
The term rock art qualifies artistic manifestations on rocky supports. This form of art is the only cultural event that has continued for more than 3000 years without interruption.
For the realized ones, the prehistoric men had several techniques:
- Engraving, where the artists hammered the rock support with a hard stone.
- Painting: the artists used colored powders that came from crushed minerals. The painting allowed them to represent the manes, hairs and fur of animals.
Rock paintings could mark a territory of habitation or hunting.
Keywords: prehistory time, present day, communication

I study / my dream job – Testimonials


Classical Bulletin
Special Issue 2, 2018
doi: 10.33909/cb/94.2018.02.46
I study / my dream job – Testimonials

by Dyson Henry
Illinois University, USA
Abstract
"I started English classes at the age of 9. The teacher was not particularly fun and friendly, but I did not care, I thought it was fantastic to be able to understand and speak another language!
I was so happy to have made this discovery that I wanted to share it with everyone, and the best way to pass on a language was for me to teach it. Since then, this desire to become a teacher has not left me.
My vocation having appeared so early, the choice of my studies was not very complicated. I was one of the lucky and lucky people who already knew where to go and how.
From high school, I knew that I was going to write a baccalaureate and that I would finish in English. Finally, I first went through a provincial preparatory class, before finishing with a degree in English.
"Keywords: Testimonial, Classical bulletin, study

Public libraries in the Roman Empire


Classical Bulletin
Special Issue 2, 2018
doi: 10.33909/cb/94.2018.02.45
Public libraries in the Roman Empire

By: Hunter Bernstein, Sean
Univ St Thomas, St Paul, MN 55105 USA.

Abstract
If the libraries of Rome are inspired by the Hellenistic model incarnated by the two famous rival libraries of Alexandria and Pergamum, they innovate by their objectives and their architectural disposition. They are no longer, in fact, solely in the service of the sovereign and the privileged community of scholars he protects and maintains. Henceforth, taking into account the palatability of literature and knowledge, they are open to a wide audience. Separated from places of power, they become autonomous "living spaces" (W. Marx) by confusing reserves, consultation and meeting rooms. Finally, they willingly juxtapose two sections of equal importance, one Greek, the other Latin. The architectural translation of this program, elaborated in its fullness from the middle of the second century AD, is distinguished by rectangular niches arranged in the thickness of the walls and intended to receive books, the presence of an exedra (or an axial apse) to house a monumental statue and often, finally, a double sidewall establishing a vacuum to protect the works against moisture. Let's take three examples. In Rome, two symmetrical libraries were placed at the southern corners of the enclosure of the giant baths of Caracalla. Only that of the southwest is now preserved. It is a rectangular room 38 m by 22, open on the courtyard of the baths by a colonnade. The three useful walls were dug out of 32 niches arranged on two levels. In the middle of the back wall was an apse that housed a colossal statue on a pedestal. Contemporary of this library (first half of the 3rd century AD) is that of Thamugadi (Timgad) in the province of Numidia. It is one of the best preserved of all Roman Africa. Of semicircular plan, the reading room presented a diameter of 12 m and opened on a court with portico. The niches were perhaps divided over two floors and the lighting was provided by a large window pierced in the frontal wall. At the other end of the Empire, in Nysa (now Sultanhisar in Turkey), the reading room measures 14.8m by 13.4m. This two-storey building has the usual space for ventilation and insulation between the walls carved out of niches and the outer walls.
Keywrords: Orthodoxy, challenging, unusual ideas