Greek Technologies of Antiquity


Classical Bulletin
Special Issue 2, 2018
doi: 10.33909/cb/94.2018.02.42
Greek Technologies of Antiquity

By: Quarterone Chrol
Marshall Univ, Huntington, WV 25755 USA.

ABSTRACT
When one evokes the world of ancient Greece, one immediately thinks of his sculptures and temples, and in two words almost inseparable, to Greek art. We will then talk about the great philosophers, then the Athenian democracy. The ancient theater, no doubt, poetry, perhaps. We also know that Greece shone in the scientific field. In mathematics, we have the memories of the theorems of Pythagoras or Thales, of the geometry of Euclid, in the arithmetic of the "Eratosthenes sieve". And then in physics of course, the principle of Archimedes. In astronomy, the name of the planets alone will remind us of something. With more than a thousand years in advance, the Greeks had discovered that the Earth was round, had calculated its diameter and the distance that separates it from the Moon. But what do we know about the technology of the ancient Greeks, the machines, the devices they used? Huge surprises await us in this area, because ancient Greece also swarmed with engineers and inventors, some as creative as Leonardo da Vinci, except that their achievements actually worked and sometimes still work today.
Keywords: Epic, Greek, technology, antiquity

Special Issue II Volume 94, 2018

VOLUME 94 * SPECIAL ISSUE 2
Contents



Greek Technologies of Antiquity
Quarterone Chrol, p.6
Classical Bulletin, Special Issue 2, 2018,  doi: 10.33909/cb/94.2018.02.42
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History of criminal law among the Romans
Greeen Carin, p.22
Classical Bulletin, Special Issue 2, 2018,  doi: 10.33909/cb/94.2018.02.43
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Olympic Games, Ancient Greece
Mac Medlen Vouler, p. 37
Classical Bulletin, Special Issue 2, 2018,  doi: 10.33909/cb/94.2018.02.44
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Public libraries in the Roman Empire
Hunter Bernstein, p.48
Classical Bulletin, Special Issue 2, 2018,  doi: 10.33909/cb/94.2018.02.45
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I study / my dream job – Testimonials
Dyson Henry, p.58
Classical Bulletin, Special Issue 2, 2018,  doi: 10.33909/cb/94.2018.02.46
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The history of communication: from prehistory to the present day /
Humble Noreen, p.83
Classical Bulletin, Special Issue 2, 2018,  doi: 10.33909/cb/94.2018.02.49
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Information and press as Institutions of Socio – political system of Azerbaijan Government
Vugar Rahimzade, p. 108
Classical Bulletin, Special Issue 2, 2018,  doi: 10.33909/cb/94.2018.02.47
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Christianity: an imperialist and opportunist religion of Roman origin
Beasom Patrick, p.118
Classical Bulletin, Special Issue 2, 2018,  doi: 10.33909/cb/94.2018.03.38
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Discussion focuses the International Labour


Classical Bulletin
Special Issue 1, 2018
doi: 10.33909/cb/94.2018.02.004
Discussion focuses the International Labour
Michael Hardt
Xavier University, USA

ABSTRACT
This contribution is part of a debate between Michael Hardt/Toni Negri and David Harvey on the occasion of Marx’s bicentenary (May 5, 2018). The discussion focuses on the question of what capitalism looks like today and how it can best be challenged. In this article, Hardt and Negri respond to David Harvey’s article “Universal Alienation”.
Keywords: Marx, bicentenary, 200th anniversary, capitalism, exploitation, praxis, alienation, formal subsumption, real subsumption

Information Technology during the New Globalization of the Critique of the World



Classical Bulletin
Special Issue 1, 2018
doi: 10.33909/cb/94.2018.02.003
Information Technology during the New Globalization of the Critique of the World
David Harvey
City University of New York, NY, United States

ABSTRACT
This article is part of a debate between David Harvey, Michael Hardt and Toni Negri. It takes Marx’s bicentenary as occasion for an update of his concept of alienation. The paper asks: how are we to interpret universal alienation and from whence does it come? Marx radically reformulated the concept of alienation in the Grundrisse. The humanism of the early Marx can be re-rooted and reconceptualised in the scientific mode proposed in the Grundrisse. In the Grundrisse, the universality of alienation is specific to capitalism’s historical evolution. Today, alienation exists almost everywhere. It exists at work in production, at home in consumption, and it dominates much of politics and daily life. Such trends intensify through the application of information technologies and artificial intelligence. Widespread alienation has resulted in Occupy movements as well as right-wing populism and bigoted nationalist and racist movements. Donald Trump is the President of alienation. The circulation of capital as totality consists of the three key moments of production, circulation and distribution. A lot of contemporary economic struggles are now occurring at the point of realisation rather than at the point of production. Protests are therefore today often expressions of broad-based discontent. Our future is dictated by the need to redeem our debts. Under such conditions democracy becomes a sham. The big question is what forms of social movement can help us get out of the state-finance nexus. The theory of objective alienation along with an understanding of its subjective consequences is one vital key to unlock the door of a progressive politics for the future.
Keywords: Karl Marx, bicentenary, 200th anniversary, alienation, capitalism, Marxist theory
 

Social Onthology and transformation of Capitalism


Classical Bulletin
Special Issue 1, 2018
doi: 10.33909/cb/94.2018.02.002
Social Onthology and transformation of Capitalism
Polony Karl Zhang
Saint Louis University, USA

ABSTRACT
This contribution is the first part of a debate between Michael Hardt/Toni Negri and David Harvey on the occasion of Marx’s bicentenary. The discussion focuses on the question of what capitalism looks like today and how it can best be challenged. This contribution asks: In what type of capitalist society are we living today? And what is the Marxian praxis that we need to challenge it? First, this paper analyses capitalism in respect to the extraction of value from the common, immaterial labour, digitisation, automation, and finance capital. The greatest abstraction in the productive process of value, in its implementation of languages, codes, immaterial articulations of being together, cooperation, affective elements, and so forth presents also in the multitude the virtuality of an extraordinary potential of resistance and autonomy from capital. Second, the paper discusses what forms of praxis are needed today. Marxian ontology is constituted and always renewed by class struggle, by the material antagonism that distributes the elements of real being and by the continuous excess of value that living labour expresses. Today, we discuss Marxian praxis in a society where intelligence is put to work at the centre of the productive process. Here emerges with great force the theme of the liberation of humans from work, on the basis of the transformations of work. Marx demonstrates how much cognitive and intellectual activity is central to production, and how much fixed capital is mixed with cognitive labour. In this context, the notion of the appropriation of fixed capital is of key importance for class struggles.
Keywords: Marx, bicentenary, 200th anniversary, capitalism, exploitation, praxis